Azad Jammu And Kashmir Introduction


The state of Azad Jammu and Kashmir lies between longitude 73o – 75o and latitude 33o – 36o and comprises an area of 5134 square miles (13,297 square kilometers). The topography of the area is mainly hilly and mountainous with valleys and stretches of plains. The area is full of natural beauty with thick forest, fast flowing rivers and winding streams. Main rivers are Jehlum, Neelum and Poonch. The climate is sub-tropical highland type with an average yearly rainfall of 1300 mm. The elevation ranges from 360 meters in the south to 6325 meters in the north.
According to the 1998 population census, the state of Azad Jammu & Kashmir had a population of 2.973, which estimated to have grown to 3.4 million in 2004. Almost 100% population is Muslim. The Rural to Urban ratio is 88:12.The population density is 258 persons per Sq Km. The literacy rate have increased from 55% to 60% after 1998 census. Infant mortality rate is approximately 56 per 1000 live births, whereas the immunization rate for the children under 5 years of age is more than 88%

The majority of the rural population depends on forestry, livestock and agriculture for its subsistence. Average per capita income is estimated to range from $ 5000 US to $ 600 US. Unemployment rate is from 35 to 50%. In line with the national trends, indicators of social sector improvement, particularly health and population welfare have not shown much proficiency. Efforts have been made during the recent past to make up this deficiency, which will bring the fruits of development to the common man.

The area under cultivation is around 166432 hectares (almost 13% of the total area) out of which 92% of the cultivable area is rain-fed. About 845 households have very small land-holdings between one to two acres per family. According to the agricultural census of 1990, the average farm size is only 1.2 hectares, The major crops are Maize, wheat & rice whereas minor crops include vegetables, grams, pulses (red Lobia) and oil-seeds. Major fruits are apple, pears, apricot and walnuts. Agriculture and livestock. Income through household earnings ranges between 30-40% while remaining share comes from other sources including employment and business etc. Reduced agriculture productivity has adversely affected the traditional lifestyle and average per capita income of the rural household.

About 42% of the total Geographical area (0.6 million hectares approximately) is controlled by the Forest Department. The per capita standing volume and area are 400 cft and 0.2 hectares respectively. Annual wood demand is 1.65 million cubic meters and sustainable production is 0.7 million cubic meters.
Government
The State of Azad Jammu and Kashmir has a parliamentary form of Government. The President is the constitutional Head of the State, while the Prime Minister, supported by a council of ministers, is the Chief Executive. The State has its own Supreme Court and a High Court. Legislative Assembly comprises of 48 members, out of which 40 are directly elected and 8 are indirectly elected - a member each from the technocrats, Mashaikh, Overseas Kahmiris and 5 females.

The Ministry of Kashmir Affairs and Northern Affairs serves as a link between the Government of Pakistan and the Government of Azad Jammu and Kashmir. Since The State inherited a backward and underdeveloped economy, the major objective of the Pakistani Government has been to promote its economic development and provide it with grants-in-aid for the purpose, and also to cover the deficits in its revenue budget.
Administration
The State of Azad Jammu and Kashmir is divided into two divisions (Muzaffarabad and Mirpur) and eight (8) administrative districts with Muzaffarabad City as the capital. The Muzaffarabad division includes Muzaffarabad, Bagh, Poonch, Sudhnuti and Neelum districts whereas the Mirpur division comprises of Mirpur, Kotli and Bhimber districts.

The people’s participation in the political process is ensured through the elected institutions AJK Legislative Assembly with 40 directly elected members, AJK Council with six elected members, beside members of local council all over 1646 villages of the state.
Economic Development
At the time of partition in 1947, the economy of Azad Jammu and Kashmir was on sustenance level but the determination to develop the area was there. In early 70’s, economic development of the area started in earnest. Despite financial constraints, planners made good efforts in laying down a proper path for the rapid development of the area.
Physical Infrastructure
a) Roads.

Roads and air transport are the only two modes of transportation into Azad Jammu and Kashmir. The present road length position and it’s comparison with the position in 1947 is given below:

Road Length (Kilometers)

Year Metalled Fair-weather Total
1947 100 165 265
2002 4162 5654 9816

b) Airports.
The Government of Azad Jammu and Kashmir in collaboration with the Civil Aviation Authority (CAA) of Pakistan has constructed two small airports at Muzaffarabad and Rawalakot cities in the recent past in order to provide an easy and fast mode of travel (presently suspended). The facility also expected to be extended to the cities of Mirpur and Kotli.

c) Power.
At the time of independence, power facility was practically non-existent in Azad Jammu and Kashmir. The Government gave great emphasis on generating electricity in order to meet the growing domestic needs as well as the industrial requirements. A program for construction of number of small Hydel stations was launched and six hydel stations have been completed so far. At present, installed Grid capacity is 283 MVA. About 17000 Km transmission lines have been extended to 1629 out of 1646 villages and about 360000 consumers have been provided with connections. The per capita electricity delivered for consumption in The State is 315 KWH and within next three years100% population would be provided power connections.

*
d) Piped Water Supply
At the time of independence, availability of piped water supply was non-existent. Significant progress has been made in this regard. Presently 77% of the urban population and 62% of the rural population have been provided with a piped water supply through house connections and public stands.
Social Infrastructure

e) Health Facilities.
At the time of independence only 30 hospital beds & 11 dispensaries were available. Health coverage is still inadequate. There are approximately 1731 hospital beds available in the area averaging 0.5 beds per 1000 population. The total number of Doctors including Administrative Doctors and Dentists is 656. There are 389 Medical Officers, 63 Dental Surgeons, 157 Specialists and 60 Health Managers which means an average of 0.191 per 1000 population in respect of Doctors, 0.133 per 1000 population in respect of Medical Officers, 0.018 per 1000 population in respect of Dentists, 0.046 per 1000 population in respect of Specialists and 0.014 per 1000 population in respect of Health Managers
f) Education.
Education has been a priority of the Govt. of Azad Jammu & Kashmir as about 27% of its total recurring budget besides 10% of the total development budget is allocated to this sector. As a result of this substantial investment, the literacy rate is well above 60%, which is significantly higher than the national average of Pakistan. At present the gross enrolment rate at primary level is 95% for boys and 88% for the girls (between the ages of 5-9 years).
Statistics on Education
District
Code
Male college
Female College
Total
Muzaffarabad
8810
1
1
2
Bagh
8720
1
1
2
Poonch
8710
1
1
2
Mirpur
8610
1
---
1
Total Post Graduate Colleges in AJK
7

Total Degree Colleges in AJK
District
Code
Male college
Female College
Total
Muzaffarabad
8810
5
1
6
Bagh
8720
2
1
3
Poonch
8710
3
2
5
Mirpur
8610
3
6
9
Sudhenoti
8750
1
2
3
Kotli
8660
5
4
9
Bhimber
8650
3
2
5
Total Degree Colleges
40

Total Inter Colleges in AJK
District
Code
Male college
Female College
Total
Muzaffarabad
8810
8
5
13
Bagh
8720
2
4
6
Poonch
8710
1
3
4
Mirpur
8610
1
2
3
Sudhonoti
8750
5
4
9
Kotli
8660
4
3
7
Bhimber
8650
3
3
6
Total Inter Colleges
48











Stumble
Delicious
Technorati
Twitter
Facebook

0 Comments:

Post a Comment

Related Posts with Thumbnails
 

Wallpapers And News Blog Copyright © 2010 Designed by Imran Yousaf, Sulman Yousaf